The culture of the Creole (native) in Louisiana emerged from the blending of:
a. Native American, French and Latino cultures
b. Native American, French and African American cultures
c. Latino, French and African American cultures
d. French, Portuguese and Native American cultures
E. None of the above… There is no evidence that Native Americans are in this mix.
Always a controversial and confusing term, the word Creole, to put it simply, means many things to many people. It derives from the Latin creare, meaning "to beget" or "create." After the New World’s discovery, Portuguese colonists used the word crioulo to denote a New World slave of African descent. Eventually, the word was applied to all New World colonists, regardless of ethnic origin, living along the Gulf Coast, especially in Louisiana. There the Spanish introduced the word as criollo, and during Louisiana’s colonial period (1699-1803) the evolving word Creole generally referred to persons of African or European heritage born in the New World. By the nineteenth century, black, white, and mixed-race Louisianians used the term to distinguish themselves from foreign-born and Anglo-American settlers. It was during that century that the mixed-race Creoles of Color (or gens de couleur libre, "free persons of color") came into their own as an ethnic group, enjoying many of the legal rights and privileges of whites. They occupied a middle ground between whites and enslaved blacks, and as such often possessed property and received formal educations. After the Civil War, most Creoles of Color lost their privileged status and joined the ranks of impoverished former black slaves. All the while, however, the word Creole persisted as a term also referring to white Louisianians, usually of upper-class, non-Cajun origin (although, confusingly, even Cajuns sometimes were called Creoles, primarily by outsiders unfamiliar with local ethnic labels). Like the Creoles of Color, these white Creoles (also called French Creoles) suffered socioeconomic decline after the Civil War. In Acadiana, newly impoverished white Creoles often intermarried with the predominantly lower-class Cajuns, and were largely assimilated into Cajun culture.
How much do you really know about the Lone Star state? If you think you are a true Texas trivia buff, check out these fun trivia facts and see how many you already knew. You might just be gain some knowledge that you can use to impress your friends and family!
~ There have been six separate national flags to fly over the state of Texas over the last 500 years. Texas was governed by Spain, France, Mexico, The Confederate States, The Republic of Texas, and of course, the United States of America. This fact is where the Six Flags theme parks got their name, being that the first of the chain was located in Texas.
~ Texas has more inland water than any other state in the continental US. Of these more than 6700 reservoirs, there is only one natural lake in the entire state of Texas. Caddo Lake, which is located on the Louisiana border, is the only water source that is considered a natural lake. All other “lakes” within Texas’ borders are either manmade or simply a part of a river.
~ Texas became part of the United States as a part of the treaty that ended the Mexican-American war in 1848. Texas gained its independence from Mexico in 1836, however the US Congress denied its annexation in 1844 because of the threat of war with Mexico. It was only after the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that the annexation of Texas was resolved between the two countries.
~ There have been 7 cities that served as the capital of Texas, though some only briefly. From 1836 through 1839, Columbia, Galveston, Velasco, Washington-on-the-Brazos, Harrisburg, and Houston all served as capital for a short amount of time. In 1839, Austin was named the new capital of the state and it remains there today.
~ Texas has more professional sports teams than any other US state, including: 2 National Football League teams, 2 Major League Baseball teams, 3 National Basketball Association teams, a Major League soccer team. an American Football League team, a Women’s National Basketball Association team and a National Hockey League team.
~ The largest city in Texas is Houston, with just under 2 million residents as of the 2000 census. There are several towns that make the claim of being the smallest in Texas, with a total of 26 incorporated towns and census-designated places claiming a population of less than 100 residents.
~ The state capital building in Austin was constructed in 1888 from Sunset Red granite, on a foundation of limestone. It stands 15 feet taller than the Capitol building in Washington, DC and has more square footage than any other state capital building in the United States.
Texas is an amazing state, filled with many amazing facts and trivia. By taking the time to learn about the history of the great state of Texas, you can become a font of fascinating information. Texas truly is one of the biggest wonders of the United States
I think the best state for sports is Louisiana(LSU(07 BCS Champs). Saints(Went further then ever, NFC Championship, 2006) Hornets(playoffs, 2008)
Who says we’re all cajuns? Im not.
Cali is overrated lol
my home state of Michigan might fit both of those.
Best: Red Wings, Pistons, Spartans, Wolverines (Sometimes Tigers)
Worst: Lions, (sometimes Tigers)
Well, some of you Bed & Breakfast innkeepers missed a golden opportunity. I went to websites of inns best known for their food, but no entrees were even mentioned. How can it be that an award-winning inn for their breakfast doesn’t describe any breakfast? So I went to websites that proudly described their dishes. Here are a few of them.
The Buttonwood Inn is in a small New Hampshire town called North Conway, but nothing about their breakfast is small. They may begin with some Pumpkin-Walnut bread or Apricot-Orange scones, Maple Cinnamon rolls, Blueberry-Walnut Crumb Coffee Cake, or warm Fruit Crisp with granola, accompanied by cool, fresh fruit topped with raspberry sauce . That would be enough breakfast for me, but the chef is just getting warmed up. Next comes a savory dish like Mushroom-Sausage and Cheddar Cheese Strata, Scrambled Eggs with Goat Cheese and Chives and a side of roasted Red Bliss Rosemary potatoes. Then comes the sweet entrée: Baked French Toast Casserole with Pecan and Wild Maine Blueberry topping. Or Light Yeasted Belgian waffles under fresh blueberry sauce. Hail to Buttonwood.
Mission Oak Inn of Henry, Illinois offers some wonderful breakfast dishes like French Banana Crepes and fabulous Blueberry Pancakes, but it was their dinners that snapped me to attention. How about a Pizza of roasted chicken, onion, and cheese atop a dreamy creamy sun-dried tomato sauce? Or tender meat medallions served in a cream, brandy, maple and mustard reduction? Or grilled salmon on fresh greens with original sauce and topped by bacon, green onions, parmesan cheese, and walnuts? Or pork tenderloin marinated in apple cider, grilled, then smothered with homemade apple/peach chutney?
Then I happened to catch Jane of the Hawk Valley Retreat on the phone. When I asked about her most popular dishes, her voice became secretive and sultry and she led me lovingly down the list: German Baked Apple Pancakes, Baked Peach French Toast, pancakes with a brown sugar/strawberry compote, Green Onion and Spinach Cheese Quiche with hash brown crust, and Eggs Benedict with her own secret Hollandaise sauce recipe. The names of her entrees didn’t bowl me over. But as she described every detail, every ingredient and spice, I knew cooking isn’t just fun for her, it is a luscious adventure. There’s a difference. Jane is a master of simple baking.
Like many of these top inns, the chefs at the Bloomsbury Inn use only fresh local farm products. I never expected a South Carolina inn to be full of such scientifically talented people. But they’ve experimented with hundreds of dishes, and the creativity of their top picks boggles the imagination: hot apple soup, poached pears and baked peaches with toasted peanut butter rolls, creamed eggs in a puff pastry, baked cinnamon-raisin French toast, toasted bacon-pecan bread, homemade biscuits with chocolate gravy, peppered praline bacon, and their own version of Eggs Benedict: a delicate crème sauce over croissant, wilted spinach, peppered ham, avocado, and poached egg. Exquisite.
Sue of the Harbour Ridge Inn in Osage was not about to be outdone. She emailed me with her choices, and I appreciated the personal attention. Sue serves fruitinis in martini glasses with a white chocolate mousse base on which she slices banana. Then she pours in Chambord-soaked strawberries with a dollop of whipping cream and a mint leaf for garnish. She does the
Bloomsbury Inn one better by nesting her Cinnamon-Raisin French toast atop a whipping cream custard base accompanied by sausage loaf and delicate poached pears in red wine and orange juice. Another popular French toast starts with fresh grilled pineapple slices, country ham, sliced cheese. Add sourdough bread soaked in French toast batter, grilled and served with a strawberry-jalapeno pepper jam. She also makes egg casserole to order with choices of fresh stuff like roasted red peppers, leeks, mushrooms, sundried tomatoes, spinach, diced ham, cheeses and fresh basil and dill. I was impressed. Nice email.
The Judge Porter House in Natchitoches (where?), Louisiana it not to be missed. The first course at the judge’s might be peach or apple dumplings, bread pudding with warm maple sauce, Peach Crisp baked with a coconut-pecan topping, Apple Brown Betty topped with vanilla yogurt, pecans, and cinnamon, or Berry Puff Pastry stuffed with fresh berries, drizzled with raspberry sauce, and topped with whipped cream. The second course may include delicious pancakes, waffles or French toast, but I featured those things in other reviews so let me emphasize the egg dishes. One baked egg dish features eggs with savory mushrooms and crème Francais cradled in Black Forest ham crisps. Another favorite is Southwestern egg mixture baked in individual ramekins and topped with hearty salsa. Then there’s the Queen Anne Quiche, but the chef was very hush-hush about it. Guess you’ll have to visit the judge’s to check it out.
The two most attractive things Bed & Breakfasts offer are cozy, top rate lodging and the best breakfast ever. Check out these terrific inns.
New Orleans (pronounced /nuːˈɔliənz, nuːˈɔlənz/ locally and often pronounced /nuːɔrˈliːnz/ in most other US dialects French: La Nouvelle-Orléans is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana. New Orleans is the center of the Greater New Orleans metropolitan area, the largest metro area in the state.
New Orleans is located in southeastern Louisiana, straddling the Mississippi River. It is coextensive with Orleans Parish, meaning that the boundaries of the city and the parish are the same. It is bounded by the parishes of St. Tammany (north), St. Bernard (east), Plaquemines (south), and Jefferson (south and west). Lake Pontchartrain, part of which is included in the city limits, lies to the north, and Lake Borgne lies to the east.
The city is named after Philippe II, Duc d’Orléans, Regent of France, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It is well known for its multicultural and multilingual heritage, cuisine, architecture, music (particularly as the birthplace of jazz), and its annual Mardi Gras and other celebrations and festivals. The city is often referred to as the “most unique” city in America
La Nouvelle-Orléans (New Orleans) was founded May 7, 1718, by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville on land inhabited by the Chitimacha. It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, who was Regent of France at the time; his title came from the French city of Orléans. The French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris (1763) and remained under Spanish control until 1801, when it reverted to French control. Most of the surviving architecture of the Vieux Carré (French Quarter) dates from this Spanish period. Napoleon sold the territory to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The city grew rapidly with influxes of Americans, French, and Creole French. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on large plantations outside the city.
The Haitian Revolution of 1804 established the second republic in the Western Hemisphere and the first led by blacks. Haitian refugees both white and free people of color (affranchis) arrived in New Orleans, often bringing slaves with them. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out more free black men, French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population. As more refugees were allowed in Louisiana, Haitian émigrés who had gone to Cuba also arrived. Nearly 90 percent of the new immigrants settled in New Orleans. The 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites; 3,102 free persons of African descent; and 3,226 enslaved refugees to the city, doubling its French-speaking population.
During the War of 1812, the British sent a force to conquer the city. The Americans decisively defeated the British troops, led by Sir Edward Pakenham, in the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815.
As a principal port, New Orleans had the major role of any city during the antebellum era in the slave trade. Its port handled huge quantities of goods for export from the interior and import from other countries to be traded up the Mississippi River. The river was filled with steamboats, flatboats, and sailing ships. At the same time, it had the most prosperous community of free persons of color in the South, who were often educated and middle-class property owners.
The population of the city doubled in the 1830s, and by 1840 New Orleans had become the wealthiest and third-most populous city in the nation. It had the largest slave market. Two-thirds of the more than one million slaves brought to the Deep South arrived via the forced migration of the internal slave trade. The money generated by sales of slaves in the Upper South has been estimated at fifteen percent of the value of the staple crop economy. The slaves represented half a billion dollars in property, and an ancillary economy grew up around the trade in slaves – for transportation, housing and clothing, fees, etc., estimated at 13.5 percent of the price per person. All this amounted to tens of billions of dollars during the antebellum period, with New Orleans as a prime beneficiary.
The Union captured New Orleans early in the American Civil War, sparing the city the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South.
Duration : 0:3:25
Categories: Louisiana Music Tags: African, American, Americans, Armstrong, art, Black, Blue, Cajun, Celebration, creole, Fat, Festival, folk, French, Gras, Hurricane, Jazz, Joint, Juke, Katrina, Louie, Louisiana, Mardi, Mississippi, music, new, NOLA, of, orleans, Quarters, River, Saints, slave, Slaves, south, Southern, Trade, Tuesday, Zydeco
The Louisiana Creole Heritage Center in Natchitoches, Louisiana is asking for a small membership fee of 8 dollars a month to help them stay open. They are at high risk of closing due to budget cuts. Please spread the word!
Duration : 0:2:19
Louisiana Baton Rouge The Pelican State
If you have a link and would like to share it will be listened to and appreciated.near New Orleans where I live we have great jazz, blues, and Cajun(I am French Cajun) ,and Louisiana French music.
I like grunge rock…
Jamie Oliver (famous British chef) is cooking Alligator in Louisiana – are they still protected in other parts of the US?
No, the American Alligator is now in the "least concern" category of animal conservation.
A combined effort by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, state wildlife agencies in the South, and the creation of large, commercial alligator farms saved these unique animals. The Endangered Species Act outlawed alligator hunting, allowing the species to rebound in numbers in many areas where it had been depleted. As the alligator began to make a comeback, states established alligator population monitoring programs and used this information to ensure alligator numbers continued to increase. In 1987, the Fish and Wildlife Service pronounced the American alligator fully recovered and consequently removed the animal from the list of endangered species. The Fish and Wildlife Service still regulates the legal trade in alligator skins and products made from them.
Lousiana culture does seem much more diverse. There are many cajuns still living in a subsistence economy based on hunting, fishing, and gardening. The cajun and creole cuisine is rarely found elsewhere, at least not in high quality. The above-ground cemeteries adds a touch of mystique along with the voodoo history. Louisiana’s dark past as a slave-port and holding place for incoming slaves is a curious look at a gut-wrenching period of U.S. history. People from Lousiana seem to have learned a way to cook any part of any animal and make it a delicacy. Whether it’s soft-shell crabs, or sucking the head out of a crawdad, or turtle soup, they don’t miss much. The French, Carribean, and African influence on dialect and cuisine can’t be missed. The greatest Creole restaurants in the world are in New Orleans, IMHO. Commander’s Palace, Brennans, Arnauds, K-Paul’s, Antoine’s, just to name a few of my favorites. And Jackson Square with it’s Cafe du Monde’s beignets and chickory coffee are an interesting experience.
Texas was largely populated by Czechs, Poles, and Germans. They seemed to assimilate into a homogenized Texan culture much more completely. The main cultural interest in Texas now seems Hispanic. Tex-Mex food and BBQ seems to be the bulk of the Texan cuisine. The best steaks are still in Kansas City. I love visiting Texas to be sure. They are a proud and patriotic people. But their cutural heritage is not so rich and diverse as it is in Louisiana. Texas is wealthier, more modern, with more malls, high-rises, extravagant modern hotels, etc. While New Orleans has more boutique hotels with very attentive staff that take great pride in using your name at every encounter. Louisiana, on the other hand, even before Katrina, was a city largely forgotten when it comes to building standards, and remaining eyesores of buildings that plainly need serious structural improvements for safety and many half-demolished buidings.
Each state has its plusses and minuses, but Lousiana culture remains richer and more diverse in my opinion.